Lietuvos gyventojų migracija Europos iššūkių kontekste / Migration of Lithuanian Population in the Context of European Challenge

Lietuvos gyventojų migracija Europos iššūkių kontekste / Migration of Lithuanian Population in the Context of European Challenge
Geografija ir edukacija, Nr. 3, 2015, p. 26 - 35.
 
Darius Česnavičius, Saulius Stanaitis
Lietuvos edukologijos universitetas / Lithuanian University of Education Sciences
 
Straipsnyje aptariama gyventojų migracija Lietuvoje XXI amžiuje. Ji siejama su naujais iššūkiais Europos Sąjungos (toliau – ES) ir gretimoms šalims. Aiškinamasi, kaip giliai Lietuvoje egzistuojančios problemos paliečia įvairias šalies politikos sritis. Pastebima, kad Lietuvoje migracijos neto per visus nagrinėtus metus išlieka neigiamas, nors pastarieji dveji metai rodo palankesnę šio rodiklio kaitą. Dėl to šalis patiria daug vidinių socialinių-ekonominių sunkumų, praranda potencialą užsienio investuotojams. Nurodoma, kad Lietuva ES ir toliau pasižymi vienais blogiausių rodiklių, o kalbos, mokslo analitiniai darbai ar tuo pagrįsti veiksmai tebėra neefektyvūs. Europoje aiškiai suformuluota nuostata, kad migracijos klausimai (ypač už ES erdvės) ir visos Europos ateitis pirmiausia priklauso nuo švietimo. Tačiau Lietuvoje švietimas tebelaikomas našta valstybei, o aukštos kvalifikacijos jaunų švietimo darbuotojų rengimas – pinigų švaistymu. Tokia nuostata nepadeda susidoroti su naujais iššūkiais valstybėje. Su laisva migracija šalyje siejami specifiniai ir visai Europai būdingi iššūkiai, tarp kurių išskirtini: grėsmė politiniam ir geopolitiniam stabilumui; švietimo grandžių ir sistemos destabilizacija; jaunimo pasiryžimas išvykti iš šalies ir aukštos kvalifikacijos specialistų potencialo praradimas; ekonominės krizės padariniai, kurie ES kontekste dar sunkėja; regioninė politika tapo neefektyvi, o dažnai ir bereikšmė (nepasiekti jokie rezultatai periferijose).
 
Reikšminiai žodžiai: gyventojų migracija, iššūkiai Europai, gyventojų politika.
 
Abstract
The article deals with a few challenges Europe is facing in the 21st century. The rapidly increasing migration of the population is one of the most relevant among them. The intensive and hardly manageable migration becomes part of bigger problems in Europe: geopolitical instability and the threat of war, international terrorism, and policy of European unity, education for the future and brain drain, enterprise stagnation, outcomes of economic crisis, negative effects of digital revolution, health status, regional policy, environmental pollution and energy issues.

It was determined that migration in Lithuania is related with the following greatest potential hazards:
1. Hardly manageable immigration, from East Europe in particular, when persons unfriendly towards Europe settle in Lithuania and threaten political destabilization and propagation of acts hostile to the EU interests.
2. Schengen visa and free movement of EU citizens are used as a pretext to blame Lithuania for hostile acts in the post-Soviet space. This can be illustrated by the allegations that Lithuania trains the Ukrainian and Georgian gunmen.
3. Due to free movement in the Schengen space and support to antiterrorist actions Lithuania is included in the potential list of international terrorists.
4. The possibilities of emigration to Europe which came into existence ten years ago created conditions for development of big Lithuanian diasporas in other countries. They make use of different public aids yet often are unable to integrate in the new social network and adapt to the law of other countries. In this way they engage Lithuania in formal debates and contribute to formation of a negative image of Lithuania as a country; e.g. for criminal offences or different approach to protection of the rights of the child (Norway).
5. Education in Lithuania is not yet orientated towards the future. Educational innovations make progress vary slowly. The deteriorating situation in the sphere of education and poor employment possibilities motivate emigration of young people striving for better education and expecting to find job in other European countries.
6. Stagnation of enterprise in this country is considerably more marked than in West European countries (though it is not related with the structural problems as in the South European countries). Emigration of young people hinders the development of progressive branches of trade due to deficiency of high qualification labour force.
7. Old trade companies, though reorganised for the purpose of modern technologies, are dominant in Europe. They lack trade ideas of the new generation. Also this is true about Lithuania which loses the labour force of highest qualification. Education of the future employers even is not included in the Lithuanian list of priorities.
8. Europe still feels the consequences of the economic crisis. They are especially strong in Lithuania because the decisions of the then government motivated Lithuanian citizens to emigrate in search of jobs and dignified subsistence (the social sphere was financially ruined).
9. The almost unlimited possibilities of digital communication help the Lithuanian citizens to find jobs abroad on their own and to keep contacts with their relations after emigration. This kind of communication compensates for traditional material contacts and weakens the desire to return to the native country.
10. The permanent depopulation of the country due to natural causes and negative net migration rate encumbers implementation of targeted regional policy for mere lack of people. In the peripheral regions the population density has been for a long time decreasing.

Keywords: population migration, challenges Europe, population policy.

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